Source: China News Network
The feed industry system is going green, modern breeding is going green, and the utilization of manure resources is going green.
Animal husbandry is quickly turning to green development (Observation of Rural Economy)
Our reporter Yu Jingxian
At present, my country’s livestock product market is adequately supplied, and the per capita share of meat and eggs has reached the level of developed countries. However, while livestock and poultry breeding is moving towards large-scale and intensive, it is also facing an unreasonable industrial structure, high environmental pressure, and insufficient product innovation capabilities. Wait for the challenge, how to crack it?
After 40 years of development, my country has become the world’s largest feed producer. In 2017, my country’s industrial feed output exceeded 200 million tons, ranking first in the world for seven consecutive years, with an annual output value exceeding 800 billion yuan. The advancement of the feed industry from big to strong and from big to excellent is promoting the transformation of feed supply. From the perspective of the overall situation of rural revitalization, the booming and high-quality development requirements are driving the transformation of the livestock and poultry breeding industry.
The feed industry is big but not strong, and big but not good——
calls for the construction of a green forage production, processing and management system
Although my country’s feed industry has made great achievements, the situation of big but not strong and big but not good has not been fundamentally reversed. This outstanding problem faced by the feed industry is manifested as an unbalanced development in the industry and as insufficient performance in terms of industrial functions. Li Defa, chairman of the China Feed Industry Association and academician of the Academy of Engineering, made this analysis at the 2018 China Feed Industry Exhibition.
To promote the high-quality development of the feed industry, it is necessary to strengthen the ability to guarantee green feed materials. The demand for green feed raw material guarantee capacity has been expanding. At present, my country directly uses 40%-50% of raw grains every year, transforming 230 million tons of energy feed such as corn. Pan Wenbo, deputy director of the Plant Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that although corn is used as an energy feed, although there are alternative varieties, the replacement ratio is limited. At present, the supply of corn is oversupply in stages, but in the long run, the supply and demand situation is still tight due to the upgrading of the consumption structure and the demand for deep processing of corn.
In recent years, my country has vigorously promoted the reform of grain and feed, encouraged the use of fixed crops, the combination of grass and livestock, and promoted the adjustment of grain planting structure. However, from the perspective of the feed raw material supply structure at this stage, soybeans, which are protein feeds, are still highly dependent on imports. Li Defa suggested that it is necessary to promote “grain conversion to beans”, increase the planting area and output of domestic soybeans, enhance the production capacity of soybeans and other protein feed materials, and make up for the shortcomings of protein feed materials; at the same time, continue to expand the scale of food reform and guide the development of whole-plant silage corn , Alfalfa and other high-quality forage production.
A modern green production and management system for feed must be established. First of all, it is the green production of feed material supply links. Pan Wenbo said that only the supply of green raw materials, green production and processing and the supply of operating systems can ensure the green growth of the feed industry’s development mode. It should be noted that there are still some problems in the quality of feed ingredients in our country. According to Li Defa, since the scale of my country’s planting industry is not high enough and there are many raw material production and sales links, some raw materials of insufficient quality are still inevitable. To this end, it is necessary to focus on the feed processing and production links, develop environmentally friendly, economical, and safe new feeds and feed additives, and focus on the research and development and promotion of advanced and suitable feed preparation technology, feeding and feeding modes and automated intelligent equipment for small and medium farmers, relying on technology The three supporting facilities of, technology and facilities promote the development of modern animal husbandry by small farmers.
Secondly, it is the cost-saving and efficiency-increasing of the feed industry management system. Jiang Wei, director of the Dalian Commodity Exchange, said that according to statistics, feed accounts for more than 70% of the production cost of the aquaculture industry and is the main input. With the gradual advancement of grain procurement and storage methods to marketization, and with the further deepening of the participation of financial instruments, the ability of feed companies to resist raw material price risks will be further strengthened. Through rational use of over-the-counter options, insurance + futures, basis trading, etc., the transaction price is determined in advance to avoid market fluctuation risks, so that the purchase of feed companies becomes more stable, orderly and more secure.
The demand gap for high-quality and safe animal products——
calls for green modern breeding and scientific drug delivery
Cherry Valley Duck is a “pain” in the germplasm resources of my country’s livestock products, and it is hard to get rid of. Huang Lusheng, an animal genetic breeder and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that in the 1970s and 1980s, the Peking duck matching line selected by the British Cherry Valley Company gradually occupied more than 80% of my country’s large-scale meat duck market with high feed conversion efficiency. “It is necessary to take the road of domestic production of improved livestock and poultry varieties to avoid repeating the mistakes of the Cherry Valley Duck.”
Agriculture puts germplasm first, and the international competition of germplasm technology is becoming increasingly fierce. However, my country’s livestock and poultry breeds have huge internal demand and broad market prospects. The demand for high-quality and safe livestock products calls for accelerating the cultivation of new green livestock and poultry varieties while ensuring a stable supply of livestock products.
On the one hand, green modern breeding has a solid foundation. my country is rich in germplasm resources and has a large market consumption demand. Domestically produced varieties have made a significant contribution to the development of my country’s animal husbandry. In particular, the innovative use of some excellent and special local varieties has met the needs of the diversified meat market. The famous Ningxiang Huazhu is one of the high-end meat brands. Its unsaturated fatty acid content is 59.6%, intramuscular fat is 5.7%, and the meat is tender, oily and not greasy.
On the other hand, the outstanding problem of “three more and three less” still exists in the development and research of germplasm in our country. “At present, my country’s seed industry has the largest number of R&D personnel, national financial R&D investment, and seed industry companies in the world, but the leading companies in the seed industry have a small market share, few major varieties, and few companies that can breed independently.” Pan Wenbo said, The degree of originality of domestic core breeding technology is not high, and there is a certain gap compared with developed countries, including insufficient genetic analysis of the formation mechanism of important economic traits, and the lack of self-created characteristic commercial varieties.
“The deep foundation is the platform, and the outstanding problem is the potential.” Huang Lusheng said that further development and utilization of germplasm resources, development of original core technologies, and improvement of the degree of independent innovation of core germplasm need to open up basic research, key technologies and integrated demonstrations in the scientific and technological innovation chain. In this process, innovative and efficient breeding and reproduction techniques, effective use of local breed resources, and further enrichment of animal products.
Accelerate the cultivation of new green livestock and poultry breeds, in particular, it is necessary to ensure safety, quality, and scientific administration. Feng Zhongwu, director of the Veterinary Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, introduced that my country has formed a veterinary drug standard system consisting of the “People’s Republic of China Veterinary Pharmacopoeia”, the annual new release of “Veterinary Drug Quality Standards” and registered veterinary drug standards, and a withdrawal period is set to strictly control veterinary drug residues. . In addition, veterinary drug products produced from July 1, 2016 must be coded and listed, and the QR code information must be uploaded to the central database. He said: “If you produce good medicines, use good medicines, and use less medicines, the safety of animal products will be guaranteed.”
Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued a document pointed out that it is necessary to strive to implement the pilot work of reducing the use of veterinary antibacterial drugs in the breeding process within three years, promote the use of veterinary antibacterial drugs, and achieve “zero growth” in the use of veterinary antibacterial drugs. , The problem of veterinary drug residues and animal bacterial resistance has been effectively controlled. “Reducing or not using antibacterial drugs does not mean that the scale of breeding has declined.” Li Defa said, encouraging the development of new animal-specific antibiotics, such as microbial preparations and Chinese herbal extracts, to replace chemically synthesized antibiotics.
Realize the resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure——
calls for the development of the whole industry chain of green animal husbandry
The supply of livestock and poultry products is sufficient, and the safety and quality are guaranteed. Is such a livestock industry a green industry? The answer is, not enough. Feng Zhongwu said that only when the entire industrial chain of the animal husbandry industry is “green” can it be said that the animal husbandry industry has transformed into a green production method. The headache is that the large amount of livestock and poultry manure produced by my country’s animal husbandry has become a major problem in rural environmental governance.
In fact, livestock and poultry manure has always been an important source of fertilizer in agricultural activities. According to estimates, the country produces about 3.8 billion tons of livestock and poultry manure annually, which can provide more than 13 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer, which is equivalent to half of the current national fertilizer nitrogen; livestock and poultry manure can also be used to produce green and clean biogas to reduce air pollution. The resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure is the fundamental way to realize the transformation of animal husbandry to green production. Qiu Bergen, a researcher at the Hunan Provincial Bureau of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, said: “A large amount of livestock manure has not been effectively used, causing environmental pollution and waste of resources. The way out is to turn manure into manure and promote the return of manure to soil.”
Resource utilization, the key is to return farmland. At present, over 1 billion tons of compost using livestock and poultry manure as the main raw material in the country, with an annual output of more than 2 billion cubic meters of biogas. Studies have shown that organic fertilizer has obvious effects on soil water retention, mineral nutrients, and crop resistance to drought, cold, and disease and insect pests. It is beneficial to improve the quality of arable land and the quality of agricultural products.
However, organic fertilizers still face multiple contradictions in sales and production. Qiu Bergen explained that, on the one hand, organic fertilizers have a slow effect and take 3-5 years to show up. Although many agricultural products that use organic fertilizers are of high quality, they are difficult to achieve high prices due to the lack of comparative advantages in brands. Therefore, planting entities, especially large numbers of retail investors, are unwilling to use it, and market sales are out of touch. On the other hand, because organic fertilizer raw materials inevitably produce peculiar smells during the production, transportation and warehousing process, coupled with reasons such as immature production technology, backward equipment, and obvious sales seasons, related companies are in site selection, profitability and operation. Facing multiple problems.
To realize the utilization of manure resources, the outstanding problem is to open up the “last mile” from the manure from the farm to the use of manure on the planting land. Pan Wenbo believes that to solve the pollution problem of large-scale livestock and poultry breeding, the key is to promote the industrial development of commercial organic fertilizer. It is required to comprehensively consider the source of raw materials, take market demand as the guidance, and accurately plan the industrial layout; establish a fiscal subsidy policy for organic fertilizer, provide rewards and supplements to the main body of raw material collection, storage, and transportation, and the application of organic fertilizer gradually. Listed in the agricultural machinery purchase subsidy catalog.
At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen institutional supply. Feng Zhongwu said: “The resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure has a long way to go and requires institutional supply as policy support.” Last year, my country had selected 100 key counties (cities, districts) for fruit, vegetable and tea to carry out demonstrations of replacing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers. This year, my country will continue to organize and implement the resource utilization project of livestock and poultry manure, and further support about 200 major livestock counties to carry out governance. On the basis of the promotion of provinces and counties, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta regions will be promoted to promote the whole province, and the whole city will be promoted in some major livestock provinces such as Shandong, Henan, Hunan, and Sichuan. Large counties are allowed to adjust the direction of project funds and subsidy methods according to local conditions. Promote the solution of the problem of manure treatment in small and medium-sized farms.